Heat Stroke in Pets An Overview Pet Prime
- Date: 24-07-2020
- Post By: Dr Sapna Soni
- Category: Best Pet Clinic in Gurgaon
Heat stroke is a form of non-pyrogenic hyperthermia that occurs when heat-dissipating mechanisms of the body can not accommodate excessive heat. Hyperthermia can be categorized into pyrogenic hyperthermia (pyrexia or fever) and non-pyrogenic hyperthermia. Heat stroke comes under non pyrogenic hyperthermia as in this body set point for temperature does not change. In heat stroke body temperature may rise upto 109 degree faranhite without any signs of inflammation as explained by Pet Prime (dog care clinic in Gurugram).
Systems affected by heat stroke: Multiple system may get affected by heat stroke due to thermal damage which results in to protein denaturation, cellular necrosis and hypoxemia.
Cardiovascular—Hypovolemia, cardiac arrhythmias, myocardial ischemia, and necrosis may occur.
Gastrointestinal— Mucosal ischemia and ulceration, bacterial translocation and endotoxemia.
Hemic/Lymphatic/Immune—Hemoconcentration, thrombocytopenia and DIC.
Hepatobiliary— Hepatocellular necrosis.
Nervous—Neuronal damage, parenchymal hemorrhage, and cerebral edema.
Renal/Urologic— Acute renal failure may occur.
Physical Examination Findings : Affected animals may show Panting, hypersalivation, hyperthermia, hyperemic mucous membranes, pale mucous membranes, cyanosis, tachycardia, cardiac dysrhythmias, shock, respiratory
Distress, ematemesis, hematochezia, melena, petechiation, changes in mentation, seizures, muscle tremors, ataxia, coma, oliguria/anuria, respiratory arrest, cardiopulmonary arrest due to thermal damage to the body organs.
What are the CBC/BIOCHEMISTRY/URINALYSIS outcomes on heat stroke?
CBC abnormalities may include stress leukogram, leukopenia, anemia, nucleated RBCs, thrombocytopenia, or hemoconcentration.
Biochemistry profile may show azotemia, hyperalbuminemia, elevations in serum enzymes hypernatremia, hyperchloremia, hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, hyperphosphatemia, hyperkalemia, hypokalemia, hyperbilirubinemia.
Urinalysis may show hypersthenuria, proteinuria, cylindruria, hemoglobinuria and myoglobinuria.
What is the treatment for heat stroke?
Immediate correction of hyperthermia should be done by spray with water or immerse in water prior to transport to veterinary facility. Convection cooling can be done with fans. Evaporative cooling such as alcohol on foot pads, axilla, and groin should be done which is very effective. Stop cooling procedures when temperature reaches 103◦F to avoid further hypothermia. Oxygen supplementation via oxygen cage, mask, or nasal catheter should be done to avoid hypoxia. Fluid support should be done to avoid shock condition. Complications, seizures, renal injury, cerebral edema should be treated accordingly by using nervine tonics and suitable antibiotics.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents are not indicated in non-pyrogenic hyperthermia because the hypothalamic set point is not altered. Due to possible adverse effects, The use of corticosteroids is considered controversial in heat stroke as suggested by best pet clinic in Gurugram (Pet Prime Veterinay clinic).
What is the prognosis and outcomes of heat stroke: Prognosis is dependent on underlying cause or disease process. Prognosis may be guarded depends on complications that occur (renal failure and DIC) and duration of episode. Prognosis is good if we moniter the patient at an early stage but it is guarded if condition is diagnosed at later stage or after onset of nervous signs as suggested by Pet Prime ( dog and cat clinic in Gurugram).